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Life Line

Memory Madness

I'm currently preparing Xdebug for its 2.7.0rc1 release, the first (and hopefully last) release candidate. There is one issue left to do, and that is the one I have been working on in the last days.

The crash popped up when running the Zeta Components test suite for the Document component. And it manifests itself through a Segmentation Fault:

derick@gargleblaster:~/dev/zetacomponents-document$ php  ~/phpunit-5.7.22.phar
PHPUnit 5.7.22 by Sebastian Bergmann and contributors.

.............................................................   61 / 1198 (  5%)
...............................S.............................  122 / 1198 ( 10%)
..............................................E......Segmentation fault

When running it from within gdb, we see:

.............................................................   61 / 1198 (  5%)
...............................S.............................  122 / 1198 ( 10%)
..............................................E..............  183 / 1198 ( 15%)
...............S.....S.....SS................................  244 / 1198 ( 20%)
...................................E.......F.................  305 / 1198 ( 25%)
..........E..................F..E............................  366 / 1198 ( 30%)
.............................................................  427 / 1198 ( 35%)
..................................
Program received signal SIGSEGV, Segmentation fault.
0x00007ffff17a96fb in zval_get_type (pz=0x42) at /usr/local/php/7.3.0/include/php/Zend/zend_types.h:411
411             return pz->u1.v.type;
(gdb) bt
#0  0x00007ffff17a96fb in zval_get_type (pz=0x42) at /usr/local/php/7.3.0/include/php/Zend/zend_types.h:411
#1  0x00007ffff17ad2dc in xdebug_var_export (struc=0x7fffffff7c68, str=0x555558f36490, level=1, debug_zval=0, options=0x5555590c3cc0) at /home/derick/dev/php/xdebug-xdebug/xdebug_var.c:974
#2  0x00007ffff17ad812 in xdebug_get_zval_value (val=0x555559180120, debug_zval=0, options=0x5555590c3cc0) at /home/derick/dev/php/xdebug-xdebug/xdebug_var.c:1059
#3  0x00007ffff17a1f11 in add_single_value (str=0x7fffffff7dd0, zv=0x555559180120, html=0, collecton_level=4) at /home/derick/dev/php/xdebug-xdebug/xdebug_stack.c:371
#4  0x00007ffff17a23dd in xdebug_append_printable_stack (str=0x7fffffff7dd0, html=0) at /home/derick/dev/php/xdebug-xdebug/xdebug_stack.c:451
#5  0x00007ffff1782089 in xdebug_throw_exception_hook (exception=0x7fffe96ae200) at /home/derick/dev/php/xdebug-xdebug/xdebug.c:1586

But these errors can sometimes be misleading. As you can see, the error now happens a bit later during the test run.

In these cases, I usually use Valgrind instead, as it gives a warning as soon as a memory issue occurs, such as a use-after-free situation, or when reading uninitialised memory.

Running the tests with Valgrind however, gave very strange results:

derick@gargleblaster:~/dev/zetacomponents-document$ valgrind php ~/phpunit-5.7.22.phar --filter ezcDocumentConverterDocbookToRstTests::testLoadXmlDocumentFromFile
==38610== Memcheck, a memory error detector
==38610== Copyright (C) 2002-2015, and GNU GPL'd, by Julian Seward et al.
==38610== Using Valgrind-3.12.0.SVN and LibVEX; rerun with -h for copyright info
==38610== Command: php /home/derick/phpunit-5.7.22.phar --filter ezcDocumentConverterDocbookToRstTests::testLoadXmlDocumentFromFile
==38610==
==38610== Conditional jump or move depends on uninitialised value(s)
==38610==    at 0x4035D2A: ???
==38610==    by 0x13E352D7: ???
==38610==    by 0x13E352D7: ???
==38610==    by 0x13E352F6: ???
==38610==    by 0xB102CCF: ???
==38610==    by 0x13E352D7: ???
==38610==
==38610== Conditional jump or move depends on uninitialised value(s)
==38610==    at 0x4035D2A: ???
==38610==    by 0x13EE3BA7: ???
==38610==    by 0x13EE3BA7: ???
==38610==    by 0x13EE3BC6: ???
==38610==    by 0xB102CCF: ???
==38610==    by 0x13EE3BA7: ???

Normally, these ??? items contain the name of C functions, but in this case, they are all unknown. That often means that Valgrind does not have the right debugging symbols available. After checking whether I had these installed, I found that I did have the debugging symbols available. Another point is that usually, at least there is some recognisable name present in stack traces for uninitialised value(s).

I first thought I had a bug in Valgrind, or perhaps the packaging was not done right for my Linux distribution. I know somebody who works on Valgrind, so I asked on IRC whether he knew what was up. Beyond the debugging symbols, he couldn't provide additional suggestions either. But NicolÑs Álvarez, who was also hanging out in the channel, asked whether PHP has a JIT engine. I answered that it doesn't (yet), and then the light bulb went off: Although PHP itself does not have a JIT, the PCRE regular expression engine that PHP uses does.

After disabling PCRE's JIT with -dpcre.jit=0, the Valgrind output is now what I expectβ€”with just the memory error that I thought was happening:

derick@gargleblaster:~/dev/zetacomponents-document$ valgrind php -dpcre.jit=0 ~/phpunit-5.7.22.phar --filter ezcDocumentConverterDocbookToRstTests::testLoadXmlDocumentFromFile
==38648== Memcheck, a memory error detector
==38648== Copyright (C) 2002-2015, and GNU GPL'd, by Julian Seward et al.
==38648== Using Valgrind-3.12.0.SVN and LibVEX; rerun with -h for copyright info
==38648== Command: php -dpcre.jit=0 /home/derick/phpunit-5.7.22.phar --filter ezcDocumentConverterDocbookToRstTests::testLoadXmlDocumentFromFile
==38648==
PHPUnit 5.7.22 by Sebastian Bergmann and contributors.

.....==38648== Invalid read of size 4
==38648==    at 0xB63E37E: xdebug_zend_hash_is_recursive (xdebug_compat.c:260)
==38648==    by 0xB65F1CF: xdebug_var_export (xdebug_var.c:965)
==38648==    by 0xB65F811: xdebug_get_zval_value (xdebug_var.c:1059)
==38648==    by 0xB653F10: add_single_value (xdebug_stack.c:371)
==38648==    by 0xB6543DC: xdebug_append_printable_stack (xdebug_stack.c:451)
==38648==    by 0xB634088: xdebug_throw_exception_hook (xdebug.c:1586)
==38648==    by 0x9BF803: zend_throw_exception_internal (zend_exceptions.c:166)
==38648==    by 0x9C3413: zend_throw_exception_object (zend_exceptions.c:1046)
==38648==  Address 0x1426f774 is 4 bytes inside a block of size 56 free'd
==38648==    at 0x4C2CDDB: free (vg_replace_malloc.c:530)
==38648==    by 0x95E07A: _efree (zend_alloc.c:2508)
==38648==    by 0x9A95C3: zend_array_destroy (zend_hash.c:1513)
==38648==    by 0x99043A: zend_array_destroy_wrapper (zend_variables.c:90)
==38648==    by 0x9902C5: rc_dtor_func (zend_variables.c:65)
==38648==    by 0x9ED835: zend_assign_to_variable (zend_execute.h:108)
==38648==    by 0xA54307: ZEND_ASSIGN_SPEC_CV_VAR_RETVAL_UNUSED_HANDLER (zend_vm_execute.h:45824)
==38648==    by 0x9FA722: ZEND_USER_OPCODE_SPEC_HANDLER (zend_vm_execute.h:1829)
==38648==  Block was alloc'd at
==38648==    at 0x4C2BBAF: malloc (vg_replace_malloc.c:299)
==38648==    by 0x95ECFF: __zend_malloc (zend_alloc.c:2904)
==38648==    by 0x95DFD3: _emalloc (zend_alloc.c:2494)
==38648==    by 0x9AAAAA: zend_array_dup (zend_hash.c:1923)
==38648==    by 0xA5664A: ZEND_ASSIGN_DIM_SPEC_CV_UNUSED_OP_DATA_CV_HANDLER (zend_vm_execute.h:47041)
==38648==    by 0x9FA722: ZEND_USER_OPCODE_SPEC_HANDLER (zend_vm_execute.h:1829)
==38648==    by 0xA5F7D9: execute_ex (zend_vm_execute.h:55557)
==38648==    by 0xB634E90: xdebug_execute_ex (xdebug.c:1876)

And with the insight this gave me, I can now attempt to find and fix the bug, and finally release Xdebug 2.7.0rc1.

Shortlink

This article has a short URL available: https://drck.me/pcre-jit-epa

Comments

Building PHP with --with-pcre-valgrind should help with those PCRE related errors you're seeing.

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